VNA Rules and Constitution
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. MISSION STATEMENT…………………………………………………………………………….3
2. THE STRUCTURE OF VNA…………………………………………………………………………….4
3. OFFICERSHIPS WITHIN VNA…………………………………………………………………………….5
4. MEMBERSHIP WITH IN VNA…………………………………………………………………………….8
5. RANK WITH IN VNA…………………………………………………………………………….13
6. ASSESSMENTS WITH IN VNA…………………………………………………………………………….17
7. PROMOTION WITHIN VNA…………………………………………………………………………….18
8. DISCIPLINE WITHIN VNA…………………………………………………………………………….21
9. SOCIETY AWARDS WITHIN VNA…………………………………………………………………………….24
10. CHAPTERS WITHIN VNA…………………………………………………………………………….26
11. ORGANIZATION OF SHOWS…………………………………………………………………………….31
13. FINANCIAL REGULATIONS…………………………………………………………………………….34
14. HEALTH AND SAFETY RULES…………………………………………………………………………….38
15. GENERAL RULES…………………………………………………………………………….43
16. VILLAGE RULES…………………………………………………………………………….46
17. HAND TO HAND COMBAT RULES…………………………………………………………………………….48
18. MISSILE COMBAT RULES…………………………………………………………………………….55
1. MISSION STATEMENT
The overall aim of Vikings North America (VNA) is to improve the understanding and knowledge, both of the membership of VNA and of the public in general, of all aspects of Viking age life (793-1066)
To this end, VNA is involved in staging shows and displays for members of the public. We constantly strive to improve the accuracy, authenticity and professionalism of our appearance and performance in order to educate through entertainment.
2. THE STRUCTURE OF VNA
It is recognized that any organization of this size requires rules and guidelines to ensure its smooth running. This is particularly so when the majority of members are using potentially dangerous weapons and care must be taken that these are not used in a manner that may endanger either other members of VNA or the public. The rules and regulations of VNA have, therefore, been formally laid down in this document and are intended to ensure that members may continue to enjoy an interesting and enjoyable hobby, whilst maintaining high standards of safety, authenticity and behavior.
VNA is headed by a single individual, the President (Konungr), who has the ultimate word on any decision taken in the name of VNA. He/she has a personally selected advisory group, the High Council, to whose members; many of the President’s duties may be delegated. Society Officers (Jarls) each have a clearly defined sphere of duty, within which theirs is the ultimate voice, although they may refer to the President or High Council to back their decisions if necessary.
The basic units or groups within VNA are the Herred. These are lead by a Group Leader or Sturaesman. A group, which is established but has not yet attained the status of a Herred, is known as a Lethang. Within the group, individual members have their own rank, either as Drengr, Fri-hals or Thrall as appropriate. Members not attached to any group are known as Provincial Members and the Provincial Member’s Group Leader represents their interests.
3. OFFICERSHIPS WITHIN VNA
I. The President/Konungr
The President/Konungr is the leader of the Society. He/she has the responsibility of providing a direction for the Society and planning its long-term future. The President appoints the members of the High Council and may remove these from their posts if they do not fulfill their assigned roles. He/she has the ultimate responsibility for maintaining order and discipline in the Society and all members of the rank of Fri-hals and above have the right of appeal to the President if they feel another Officer of the Society has unfairly treated them. The President is answerable to all voting members of the Society and must answer questions put to him/her at Althings regarding VNA business. He/she may vote at Althings, but may choose to retain this right only to use as a deciding vote when necessary. The President is the public face of the Society and will normally direct major events and liaise with officials and the media.
Appointment of a President
The choice of President is the personal decision of the outgoing President.
II. The High Council
The High Council members are the advisers to the President and, as such, are his/her personal appointment. Members of the High Council may also hold one or more of the Society Officer positions. Members of the High Council are responsible for maintaining order and discipline within the Society and keeping the President informed of changes within their area of responsibility. In the absence of the President, a member of the High Council will normally take charge of any major public event and be responsible for liaising with officials and the media. He/she will be answerable to all voting members of the Society and must answer questions put to them regarding VNA business.
One member of the High Council will be appointed, by the President, as second in command and will run the Society should the President be unable to, on a temporary basis. He/she will become the new President, should the previous holder of the title no longer fill the post.
III. Society Officers
A Society Officer (Jarl) is responsible for the functioning of a particular aspect of the Society and within that area they may, if necessary, overrule any other member of the Society. The post holders are appointed by the President and may be removed from their post by him/her if they fail to fulfill that role. An individual may hold more than one position or a position may be left vacant if the President does not see a need for the post at that time.
Each Society Officer may appoint a number of deputies (Training Thegns) who will assist in the running of their area of responsibility. Deputies will only have authority in their immediate area of interest, as defined by the Society Officer, and any problems arising should be immediately referred back to the appropriate Society Officer. After serving a minimum of two years, deputies will become eligible for promotion to the rank of Silver Thegn. The Society Officer may make a recommendation for promotion to the President after consultation with the individual’s Group Leader.
The Secretary is responsible for maintaining the membership records of the Society. He/she coordinates the record keeping of the Society and ensures that for every member the information is available as to their membership, rank, test status and show attendance.
B. Authenticity/Village Officer
The Authenticity/Village Officer is responsible for maintaining and, whenever possible, improving the standards of authenticity within the Society. He/she is responsible for ensuring that information is available to every member of the Society, in particular the Herred Authenticity/Village Officers, and that the information is as accurate as possible and, if necessary, constantly updated. He/she has the authority to prevent any member of the Society from appearing in Dark Age costume, if it does not reach the standards required at that show, or to remove any part of their costume, and may delegate that authority as he/she deems appropriate. The Authenticity/Village Officer may prevent the use of any weapon in a public display, if that weapon does not meet the standards required. He/she may expect to be consulted on any aspect of authenticity across both the period of history and the different racial groups represented by the Society. He/she is also responsible for examining the standard of members’ costume and equipment as a part of the assessment procedure, but may appoint deputy (AO) to undertake this duty on his/her behalf.
Additionally the Authenticity/Village Officer is responsible for the setting up and running of any encampments/villages/static craft as part of Living History displays at all musters. The Authenticity/Village Officer may also examine or appoint deputies (RTTV) for village/craft assessments.
C. Combat Training Officer
The Combat Training Officer is responsible for maintaining the standards and safety of all combat within the Society. He/she is personally responsible for training and testing all RTTs. He/she is responsible for the setting of all hand-to-hand weapon tests and either examines or appoints deputies (RTT) for these tests. He/she will organize the combat at Society events. If any combatant has been deemed unfit to take part on that day and removed from the field, the Combat Training Officer ensures that the correct procedures are followed in any subsequent investigation. He/she is responsible for organizing any subsequent re-assessment of a warrior and any disciplinary action, which needs to be taken.
The Combat Training Officer should study the use of weapons and the training methods used and ascertain if their use and the Society’s training methods could be improved. He/she should meet regularly with the societies RTTs to discuss these ideas.
Additional society officers may be appointed in the future as the President sees fit in order to meet the growing needs of VNA.
4. MEMBERSHIPS WITHIN VNA
I. General points
A member of VNA is any person who has paid his/her annual subscription to the Society for the current year and who has been granted a membership card. Only those whose dues are fully paid are entitled to the privileges of membership. VNA reserves the right to refuse membership without explanation. VNA has the right to withdraw membership from any individual or group should it consider this action to be in the best interests of VNA. All membership applications must be submitted to the President and will be not be effective until the date of issue of a membership card. Membership duties may be delegated to a membership coordinator at the President’s discretion.
A. Membership expires on the 31st of January each year. Members must have paid their renewal fees before attending any function in the following year.
B. The member agrees to be bound by the rules of VNA made now or in the future and by the terms of any contract entered into by VNA on his/her behalf.
C. VNA is not liable for any injury, loss or damage incurred by a member arising from any of the activities organized by VNA.
D. VNA is not liable for any injury, loss or damage inflicted by a member on a member of the public during any event, if that member was acting in contravention of the rules of VNA.
E. The member agrees not to organize musters, shows, or commit VNA to any undertaking without the approval of the President.
F. Any member appearing in a public display must be suitably dressed and equipped. The member agrees to dress and equip himself/herself in accordance with the Authenticity guidelines laid down by VNA and to accept the authority of the Authenticity/Village Officer in judging the standard of this equipment. The member should never combine 20th century apparel with period costume when on a show ground or representing VNA in any way.
G. All members are expected to comply with safety guidelines, whether laid down by VNA or event organizers. All members are expected to be conversant with safety rules – ignorance is not accepted as an excuse.
H. All members are expected to obey orders given to them by an Officer of VNA. Grievances must be aired afterward, in private.
I. Members are at all times responsible for the welfare and behavior of any children or animals in their care.
J. The member licenses Vikings North America to use any photographic, film or written material, which the member either produces or appears in, on behalf of Vikings North America in the following areas. Vikings North America retains the limited license to use the member’s media for advertising or promotional purposes. The member further grants Vikings North America the limited license to said media for its use in official publications (i.e. guidebooks, training videos and promotional media). All copyrights remain the property of the member. If Vikings North America decides to use said licensed media for any purpose other than that stated herein, Vikings North America must get written permission from the photographer, videographer or their agent to do so.
II. Adult membership
The minimum age for adult membership is 18 years. Only adult members may be combatant members of VNA.
With the ever increasing number of minors (i.e. people under 18 years of age) attached to VNA it has become apparent that there must be some control over their activities, both on the show ground and on the campsite. To that end, it was decided that minors who attend VNA shows have to first become members of VNA. All minors will have to obey the general rules of behavior.
A. General Rules
1. No minor may attend a show or events without an accompanying adult. They are the responsibility of that adult at all times and VNA is not liable for any damage or trouble caused by that minor. In the case of older (16-18) minors with no parent present, if no one is prepared to take responsibility for their actions, either the Group Leader of the group to which he/she is attached, or, if accompanying provincial members, the owner of the vehicle in which he/she traveled will be deemed to be the responsible adult.
2. Any minor who persistently behaves in a manner in which the reputation of VNA is placed in jeopardy or who causes injury or damage to other children, adults or property, may be banned from attending one or more shows or events – the length of the ban to be decided by the Society AO/Village Officer or the President. This ban will cover both the show ground and campsite and, if necessary, will be extended to include the responsible adult.
3. All minors must have signed parental consent before being accepted into VNA
4. All minors wishing to take an active part in events must be registered with the Membership Officer and have a membership card issued. Minors who are not members of VNA will not be allowed to take part in events, irrespective of the standard of their kit or their craft/acting abilities.
B. Use of Weapons
Many of the children enjoy playing with weapons, in imitation of the adults they are surrounded by. Since these are potentially dangerous, particularly the heavier, wooden scaled-down copies of authentic weapons, here must be a degree of control over their use. These rules cover both campsite and show ground and also include the use of improvised weapons (sticks, stones etc.).
1. No child/juvenile is allowed to carry or use a sharp weapon of any description at any event, unless taking part in a display under adult supervision.
2. All weapons should be regularly checked by the responsible adult for damage, splinters etc. which may make the weapon potentially dangerous.
3. Any Combat Training Officer or VNA officer has the right to examine the weapons being used and confiscate any that he/she deems unsafe. In the case of any dispute, the judgment of the Combat Training Officer or VNA officer or the President is final. If the responsible adult then adapts or mends the weapon to make it safe, it should be examined either by the person implementing the ban, the Combat Training Officer, VNA officer or the President, before being returned to the child.
4. Missile weapons should only be used under adult supervision.
5. A bow of up to 35lbs draw may be used if supervised by an appropriate adult. Wooden arrows should conform to the safety standards outlined in the Archery Rules. Higher poundage bows may be used for a specified reason, with the permission of the Combat Officer or AO/Village Officer and under appropriate adult supervision.
C. Junior Membership 13-18 Years Old
1. Junior members over the age of 13 may attend and take part in weapons training sessions, subject to the agreement of the Training Officer in charge of that session and with parental consent. They will be restricted to the weapons allowed them by that Training Officer and must wear full safety equipment.
2. Junior members must wait until they are 18 years of age and become full members of VNA and before being allowed to use weapons on the field at events.
3. junior members may act as standard bearers, musicians, etc. in the battle lines, but only during the scripted part of the show.
4. Junior members, of any age, may take craft and acting tests, subject to the agreement of the testing officer, but the standard of the test should be maintained
5. Junior members may be promoted to the rank of Fri-hals, at their Group Leader’s discretion. All events attended and all test points accumulated by junior members will count towards the award of Drengr, however this will not be awarded until they reach 18 years of age.
D. Youth Membership under 13 years of age
1. Youth membership is available for children 12 and under with parental consent. Only members of VNA may take part in events.
2. Minors under the age of 13 are the direct responsibility of the parent. The parent should make every effort to supervise the minor and when in view of the public, keep the minor occupied in a period manor that fits with the authenticity standards of VNA. In some instances several parents will work together.
IV. Lapsed Membership
A. A member is deemed to have lapsed when he/she has not paid membership for more than 1 year. Late membership fees will be accepted up until 31st December of each year.
B. A lapsed member, of any rank, is not guaranteed an automatic right to renew his/her membership and may be refused membership without explanation.
C. A lapsed member, of any rank, must retake the appropriate assessment(s) before being allowed to take part in a show in any capacity.
D. A lapsed Drengr whose membership has lapsed by less than 1 year will be allowed to retain that rank but must retake any specialist weapons tests before being allowed to use that weapon at a Society event. Once membership has lapsed by more than 1 year the lapsed member will only be re-admitted as a prospective member with the rank of Thrall. For example, a Drengr who has not paid his/her membership for 1 year and 1 day may retain their rank, but must retake weapons assessments. A Drengr who has not paid his/her membership for 2 years and 1 day becomes a Thrall.
E. A holder of the Silver Thegn award whose membership has lapsed by less than 3 years will be allowed to retain the rank and privileges of that award, but must retake any specialist weapons assessments before being allowed to use that weapon at a Society event. Once membership has lapsed by more than 3 years, the lapsed member will only be re-admitted as a prospective member with the rank of Thrall.
V. Guest Membership
A. Any member of another re-enactment society or non-member of the VNA wishing to take part in a show on a particular day must become a temporary member of the Society for the specific period of time. A sponsoring member must obtain permission for this person to take part from the President before the event. The sponsoring member will be held responsible for ensuring that the guest member has the necessary skills to safely take part in a display and for their behavior throughout the period of their guest membership. A charge may be levied for guest membership; this will be deducted from the cost of full membership if this is taken out in the same calendar year.
B. Temporary members are bound by the rules and regulations of VNA for the period of their guest membership.
5. RANKS WITHIN VNA
New members of VNA are ranked as Thralls. This is a short probationary period (minimum length 3 months) during which the individual will be expected to fulfill certain basic requirements before being regarded as a full member of VNA.
1. Restrictions on a Thrall
a. A Thrall may not take part in a show as a combatant until they have passed the relevant safety assessments, but may participate in a non-combatant role.
b. A Thrall wishing to become a combatant may only train with those weapons allowed to him/her by the Training Officer organizing the training session.
c. A Thrall has no vote on Society matters.
2. Duties of a Thrall
a. Payment of membership fees and compliance with rules and Constitution of VNA.
b. Assembling of basic costume and equipment – the Thrall must acquire a basic set of costume which is authentic either to the period and racial group in which his/her Herred/Lethang specializes or, in the case of Provincial members, to any period and racial group represented by VNA. This costume must be checked and passed by an Authenticity/Village Officer of VNA before a Thrall will be allowed to take part in a show, in any capacity. For potential hand-to-hand combatants, helmet, gloves and appropriate groin protection are a safety requirement and should be regarded as an essential first.
c. Attend regular training sessions – the Thrall wishing to become a combatant should take every opportunity to attend regular training sessions, both those organized locally by the Herred Combat Training Officer, and Society training weekends run by VNA Combat Training Officer. If no organized sessions are available locally, Thralls should attend Society events where there will be Recognized Training Officers present, and request that teaching sessions be held. Prospective Villagers should take this time to acquire some skill or craft that will be useful in an encampment or village scenario.
d. Pass the Fri-hals Assessment – to be recognized as a Fri-hals the Thrall must first pass the appropriate Fri-hals assessment.
3. Privileges of a Thrall
Membership in VNA – once the Thrall has paid the membership fees then they will be regarded as members of VNA for that year, free entry into shows (unless an extra site fee is required for things like port-a-potties). Membership in VNA should always be regarded as a privilege and one that can be removed, at any time and regardless of rank, by the President. Thralls have no right of appeal against expulsion from VNA and may be expelled by either the President or by any Society Officer.
B. The Fri-hals
The Fri-hals is a full member of VNA who is recognized as having attained a minimum standard of competence whilst not as yet having earned the right to vote on Society issues.
1. Restrictions on a Fri-hals
a. The Combatant Fri-hals may only use those weapons in which he/she has passed the appropriate assessment. He/she may train with other weapons, at the discretion of his/her Combat Training Officer.
b. A Fri-hals has no vote on Society matters.
2. Duties of a Fri-hals
a. Payment of membership fees and compliance with the Society rules.
b. Improvement of costume and equipment – the Fri-hals has a duty to continually improve the standard of his/her costume and equipment. During this period the member should acquire a second set of costume, so that he or she can represent two periods, racial groups or sexes to the satisfaction of an Authenticity/Village Officer.
c. Attend regular training sessions – Fri-hals should concentrate on both improving and broadening their range of skills. Those who are qualified as combatants must at least maintain their level of skill and control; otherwise the right to fight on the field will be removed.
d. Attain the necessary qualification for promotion to Drengr – before being considered for the rank of Drengr, the Fri-hals must fulfill certain criteria, including passing the necessary number of assessments.
3. Privileges of a Fri-hals
a. The Fri-hals is a full member of VNA
b. A Fri-hals may take part in a show in any capacity for which he/she is qualified.
c. The Fri-hals has right of appeal against any act of discipline against him/her, which he/she believes to be unfair, provided they can convince any Society Officer of VNA to act as advocate on their behalf.
The Drengr comprise the backbone of VNA, those members who have proven both their abilities and their commitment to VNA and who now have a say in the running of VNA and a vote in Society decisions.
1. Duties of a Drengr
a. Payment of membership fees and compliance with the Society rules.
b. Improvement of costume and equipment – the Drengr has a duty to continually improve the standard of his/her costume and equipment to the satisfaction of an Authenticity/Village officer.
c. Attend regular training sessions – all Drengr should take every opportunity to attend practice and training sessions, both at group and Society level, to maintain their own skills and to assist in the teaching of new members of the Society.
2. Privileges of a Drengr
a. A Drengr is a full member of VNA.
b. A Drengr may speak at Althings and is a voting member of VNA
c. A Drengr may take part in a show in any capacity for which he/she is qualified.
d. The Drengr has right of appeal to the President against any act of discipline against him/her, which he/she believes to be unfair.
The rank of Thegn is conferred by the President and may be removed by him/her. It is signaled by the presentation of the Silver Thegn award.
1. Duties of a Thegn
a. Payment of membership fees and compliance with the rules of VNA.
b. Improvement of costume and equipment – the Thegn has a duty to continually improve the standard of his/her costume and equipment to the satisfaction of an Authenticity/Village Officer and to set an example in this to the lower ranks and is a voting member of VNA.
c. Attend regular training sessions if the Thegn intends taking an active part in Society shows.
2. Privileges of a Thegn
a. A Thegn is a full member of VNA.
b. A Thegn may speak at Althings and is a voting member of VNA.
c. A Thegn may take part in a show in any capacity for which he/she is qualified.
d. The Thegn has right of appeal to the President against any act of discipline against him/her, which he/she believes to be unfair.
6. ASSESSMENTS WITHIN VNA
To ensure that VNAs high standard of safety, authenticity and showmanship are maintained and continually improved, it is necessary to have a system of assessments. This provides a system by which success can be rewarded, whilst highlighting those individuals who are receiving inadequate training or need help in improving the standard of their equipment.
I. General points
A. Dress & equipment check. All Fri-hals and above should present themselves in full costume and carry all the weapons and equipment which they intend to use for an authenticity and safety assessment. Anyone failing to reach the required standard will not be allowed to continue with the rest of the assessment.
B. Members will not progress to a higher rank until they have fulfilled the necessary qualifications.
C. Fulfilling the necessary qualifications does not automatically mean that the member gains the promotion to a higher rank. This is the decision of their Group Leader and must be ratified by the President before any promotion is made.
D. Any member who feels they have been overlooked for promotion should first speak to their Group Leader or the Provincial Member’s Coordinator, followed by the VNA Secretary with details of their qualifications.
A. Assessments will normally be held at training weekends and nominated shows throughout the year.
B. The appropriate VNA officer will nominate testing officers at each event. The testing officer’s decision is then final.
C. Members wishing to take an assessment must have their membership cards with them. However this may be waived at the testing officer’s discretion or if a Group Leader or Society Officer vouches for them.
D. All parts of the test must be completed and passed. No partial passes are allowed – failure of any part of the assessment means the entire assessment must be retaken.
III. Show attendance
The member’s Herred/Lethang Group Leader must provide evidence of attendance at shows. Provincial members should keep a record of all events attended so that this may be given to the VNA Secretary, if required
7. PROMOTION WITHIN VNA
I. Thrall – Fri-hals
All new members have the rank of Thrall and must earn the rank of Fri-hals.
To qualify the member must:
A. Pass a basic gear and costume check performed by any AO/RTTV approved by the Society Authenticity/Village Officer
B. Pass a basic proficiency assessment
1. Basic Combat – may be examined by any qualified RTT, approved by the Society Combat Training Officer. (value 1 Drengr point)
2. Basic spear – may be examined by any qualified RTT, approved by the Society Combat Training Officer. (value 1 Drengr point)
3. Basic Archery – may be examined by any qualified RTT, approved by the Society Combat Training Officer. (value 1 Drengr point)
4. Basic Village – may be examined by any AO/Village Training Officer, approved by the Society AO/Village Officer. (value 1 Drengr point)
C. Be a member for at least 3 months.
D. Be recommended by their group leader as showing commitment (Provincials will have to be assessed on show attendance). Promotion will then be dated from the VNA Secretary receiving notification and the Fri-hals will have 1 Drengr point toward their Drengr award.
II. Fri-hals - Drengr
To qualify the member must:
A. Collect a total of 9 Drengr points by qualifying in a number of ways.
1. Compulsory requirements
a. Promotion from Thrall – Fri-hals (1 Drengr point), see above.
b. Drengr kit check – the candidate must have two sets of kit representing either two social classes or two racial groups within the period covered by the Society. These will be examined and must be passed as acceptable by the Society Authenticity/Village Officer or an appointed deputy, before the candidate is promoted to the rank of Drengr. (1 Drengr point)
A gear check may be part of each test taken under 7.11.2.a-d In some cases, the dress of the candidate may be expected to reflect the character he/she is portraying e.g. a gold/silversmith would not be dressed as a peasant.
c. Compulsory participation and service (value1 Drengr point)
Any member accruing 20 participation and service points will receive 1 point towards their Drengr.
Participation at an event with in 150 miles of the person’s residence – 1 point
Participation at an event over 150 miles of the person’s residence – 3 points
Serving as a VNA event coordinator – 1 point
Anyone who believes they have achieved 20 participation and service points should contact the VNA Secretary who will verify this. Attendance at subsequent shows does not earn the member any further points towards their Drengr.
a. Combat/Archery – the Society Combat Training Officer now has a number of different weapon tests. All tests are worth 1 Drengr point. However a second Drengr point may be awarded for exceptional skill in an any advanced combat assessment.
b. Craft skills – candidates will be expected to perform and speak to the public about any craft skill they wish, provided that the AO/Village Training Officer approves it as appropriate. Whenever possible, the craft should be performed in a fully authentic manner, so that it could be demonstrated in a Living History Village, but exceptions can be made if this is not possible.
All crafts demonstrated at a basic level are worth 1 Drengr point. However up to 2 additional Drengr points (maximum of 3) may be awarded for and exceptional craft assessment.
c. Historical knowledge – assessments on basic and advanced history, runic knowledge, religion, etc. can be taken. All assessments are worth 1 Drengr point. See the Society Ao/Village Officer for further details. As an alternative to an Advanced History Assessment, a candidate may submit a thesis (max. 2000 words) to the Society AO/Village Officer on any subject relevant to the period and interests covered by the Society. Part or the entire thesis may be subsequently published on the VNA web page and future VNA publications.
d. Working for the Society – active First Aiders, Society and/or group officer. All activities are worth 1 Drengr point. Group Leaders should contact the VNA secretary once they feel their Fri-hals deserves reward, usually this would be after at least a year of active service.
B. Be nominated by their Group Leader to the President. The Provincial Members Officer should nominate provincial members who have fulfilled the above criteria.
3. Silver Thegn
Awarded by the President; Group Leaders and/or Society Officers (in consultation with the individual’s Group Leader) can nominate Group Officers for the promotion.
8. DISCIPLINE WITHIN VNA
Any society or organization involved in public display must preserve an unblemished reputation. Any action by a member of that society which could bring the society into disrepute must be subject to disciplinary action to prevent a repeat of the incident, either by the individual or by other members.
I. Offenses subject to disciplinary action
Injury to a member of the public
Deliberate injury to another member of VNA and/or breaking the code of honor
Verbal or gestured abuse of a member of the public
Verbal or gestured abuse of a member of VNA
Making verbal or written statements to the media with the intention of bringing VNA, or a member of VNA, into disrepute
Failure to obey an instruction or request from a show official
Failure to comply with VNA rules and regulations
Failure to comply with Herred/Lethang rules and regulations
Deliberately sabotaging a VNA event in any way
Reveling the confidential workings of VNA
A Society Training Officer, deputy or any Group Leader may remove any individual from a battlefield or village who they deem to be acting in an unsafe or irresponsible manner. There is no immediate right of appeal to their decision, but an investigation must be held immediately after the event and appropriate disciplinary measures will be taken then, if necessary.
II. Disciplinary action
A. Any minor disciplinary matter may be dealt with by the appropriate Society officer, the individual’s Group Leader or the Provincial Coordinator. The President should be informed of the results of any investigation and subsequent action, he/she might then notify any other Society officer he/she deems appropriate. The President automatically deals with any offense involving a member of the public or press.
B. Major breaches of discipline, particularly those that may affect the reputation of VNA in any way, should be referred to the President, who may confer with any society officer he/she deems appropriate before taking action.
C. The disciplinary officer will award a suitable punishment, if appropriate, and if the individual is satisfied that the incident has been dealt with fairly, then the individual’s Group Leader will be informed and the matter will be taken no further.
Punishments should reflect the nature of the offense and the circumstances under which it was committed. The previous record of the offender should also be taken into consideration. The following is a list of disciplinary measures, which may be considered.
The length of time of any ban must be stated at the time of punishment although other requirements may then have to be met before the ban is lifted.
1.Weapons – an individual may be banned from using a particular weapon or all weapons for a period of time. He/she may continue to train with that/those weapon(s) and at the end of the ban will have to satisfy an RTT of his/her competence with that/those weapon(s) before being allowed to use it/them at an event.
2. Equipment – a piece of equipment may be banned on either safety or authenticity
grounds. The equipment may not be used at events again unless modified in a way as to
make it satisfactory.
3. Shows – an individual may be banned from attending a set number of shows as a Society member. These will be consecutive shows starting from the date of the ban. The individual is not left to decide which shows they choose to miss.
B. Reduction in rank
1. Loss of rank- any individual may be reduced in rank. The President must ratify reducing any member to below the rank of Drengr. Anyone reduced to below the rank of Drengr must retake the Drengr assessment before being re-admitted as a Drengr – promotion will then be made privately rather then at an event.
2. Loss of office – the President may remove any officer from his/her position.
3. Removal of rank – the President may remove the rank of Silver Thegn from any individual, with the consequent loss of accompanying privileges.
1. From a Herred/Lethang – the Group Leader of a Herred/Lethang may expel any individual from his/her group (subject to their group rules).
2. From the society – the President may expel any individual from the membership of the Society.
IV. Right of appeal
As a provisional member, the Thrall has no right of appeal to any decision. All Fri-hals and above, have the right of appeal to the President against disciplinary action, whoever may have meted it out. All decisions of the President are final. There is no appeal for against the judgment of the President.
9. SOCIETY AWARDS WITH IN VNA
As well as a rank, the Society has a number of awards, which may be given to members who are recognized as having made an outstanding contribution to the Society.
I. General points
A. No award is earned automatically by fulfilling basic criteria. The member must also be recognized as having earned the award by a substantial and sustained contribution to the Society.
B. No member may put him/herself forward for an award. His/her Group Leader, Provincial Member’s Coordinator or any appropriate society officer may nominate a member for any award. Nominations should be given to the President, as he/she decides whether the award should be made.
C. Awards are normally made at the next large event. No prospective recipient should be told of the award before it has been made.
D. The President may remove a member’s awards or rank, with any accompanying privileges, if the holder has been judged to have brought into disrepute or found guilty of any major breaches of discipline.
II. The five-year award
This award can be made to any member who has held the rank of Drengr for a period of 5 years or more and who, in the time, has made a valued and sustained contribution to VNA. There are no privileges associated with this award.
III. Silver Thegn
This award can be made to any Drengr who has been a Group Leader, Society Officer or Herred Officer for a minimum of 2 years and who in that time has made a valued and sustained contribution to VNA. Holders of this award hold the rank of Thegn.
IV. The Presidents Award of Merit
This award can be made to any member who has made a valued and sustained contribution to VNA, either over a long period of time or on a particular project, and recognition for this would not be made by presentation of any of the above awards. There are no privileges associated with this award.
V. The Pete James/Rob Schuster trophy
The Pete James/Rob Schuster trophy is the personal award of the President to a Herred, which, in his/her opinion, has been seen to contribute the most to VNA in the proceeding year. A number of criteria will be used to decide to whom the trophy will be awarded including the total number of members attending society events and the number of Society events hosted by the group. This award will be presented by the President (usually at an event in September or October) and the trophy held by that group for the next 12 months. Lethangs and groups who have achieved Herred status with in the last 12-month period are not eligible to win the trophy.
10. CHAPTERS WITHIN VNA
I. General rules
A. Any Herred/Lethang has the right to refuse an applicant membership of that Herred/Lethang, but may not deny that individual membership of the Society.
B. Members of a Herred/Lethang are expected to obey the rules of that Herred/Lethang. Any disobedience of these rules is a matter to be dealt with internally by that Herred/Lethang unless a contravention of VNA rules is involved. VNA rules will always take precedence over Herred/Lethang rules.
C. United States federal and state laws always take precedence over any VNA rules or regulations.
II. The Lethang
A. General rule
The Lethang is a title VNA gives to a new group, which is in the process of establishing itself, and is working toward being recognized as a Herred. The Lethang must operate within the rules of VNA, but may also be in the process of establishing its own set of rules governing the conduct of its members.
B. Forming a new group and attaining recognition as a Lethang
Anyone wishing to form a new group should contact the President for permission.
Any new group must have at least 4 paid members before being recognized by the President.
The group must submit to the President an outline of how the group intends to develop, describing race/period of the primary interest, training plans, appointment and training of officers and any areas of special concern, which the group intends to develop. Once the President is satisfied, the group will be recognized as a Lethang and the Group Leader awarded the title of Sturaesman.
C. The Group Leader
The leader of a Lethang will hold the title of Group Leader/Sturaesman and has the right to attend, and vote at, Althings. The Group Leader is responsible for the dress, combat ability and behavior of the Lethang members at VNA events. He/she is responsible for representing his/her members’ views on the group leaders list and Althing and for reporting back to his/her members the decisions made at the meetings. The Group Leader nominates his/her members for awards and appoints offices to which he/she will delegate aspects of the work associated with running a Lethang.
D. Qualification as a Herred
In order to qualify as a Herred, the Lethang must:
1. Have a minimum of 6 paid members
2. Have appointed members to fill the posts of Group Leader, Group Authenticity/Village Officer, and Group Combat Training Officer. It is highly recommended that the group also appoint a First Aid Officer. The First Aid Officer must have produced evidence of a valid first aid certificate.
3. Have written, and registered with the President, group rules outlining the aims and attributes of the group, authenticity and training guidelines and the mechanisms by which the Group Leader and officers are appointed and dismissed.
4. Pass the appropriate Herred test.
Once a group has filled these basic criteria, the award will be made at the discretion of the President. The opinions of the Society Authenticity/Village and Combat Training Officers will also be sought before the decision is made.
E. The Herred test
For a Lethang to be promoted to Herred it must show that it is making a positive contribution to VNA. To assist the President in assessing this contribution, the Lethang must complete nine of the following assessments or achievements:
Possession of first aid and fire safety equipment. (Spot checked at any muster)
Putting on a show of any size. (Not to conflict with previously scheduled shows)
Attendance outside home group
Possession, set up, and operation of props for a living history exhibit.
Equipment for a combat display (safety ropes)
Craft display in living history exhibit.
Gaining three shows of any size
Having five advanced warriors
Having five advanced villagers
Having a combination of five advanced villagers or combatants
Having an RTT in combat or AO/RTTV
For each society level officer with in the Lethang
Having 3 or more Drengr with in the Lethang (required)
Having 5 warriors qualified in the use of advanced spear
Having 5 warriors qualified in the use of long axe
Having 5 warriors qualified in the use of bow
Having 5 warriors qualified in the use of an assortment of advance combat styles. (may be used in place of 14, 15 and 16)
Having 5 villagers that have passed the history test
Parts 1, 2, 3 and 13 are compulsory for all Lethangs and failure to achieve these will result in the Lethang being passed over. Assessment 4 and 5 is required for any Lethang that has warriors or villagers.
It should be remembered that the Lethang will not be allowed to take any of the assessments unless they have at least 6 paid adult members and at least 6 paid adult members are present for the assessment. Only those qualified for a particular assessment will be required to take it, but all members present will be expected to take at least one assessment.
A Lethang must have 6 or more paid members for the duration of the two-year period over which they are assessed for their attendance, they need not be the same members.
III. THE HERRED
A. General points
The Herred is the title conferred upon a group within the Society, which has fulfilled a certain number of qualifications and has earned the title through commitment to the Society. The title of Herred is awarded by the President and may be removed by him/her should he/she judge this necessary. The Herred is an semi-autonomous unit which, whilst having to function within the rules of the Society, may have its own internal rules and policies as agreed by the group. A copy of these rules should be lodged with the President for reference purposes.
B. Size and Structure of the Herred
A Herred must consist of a minimum of 6 full adult members – this may include the Group Leader. Any group, which falls beneath this number, for a 12-month period, will automatically revert to Lethang status unless the President decides otherwise.
1. The Group Leader
The mechanism by which a Herred selects and removes Group Leaders is defined by that group and should be laid out in the group rules. The Group Leader should hold the rank of Drengr. He/she will hold the title of Group Leader/Sturaesman and has the right to attend and vote at Althings. The Group Leader is responsible for the dress, combat ability and behavior of his/her Herred members at Society events. They are responsible for representing their members’ views at the Althing and for reporting back to their members the decisions made at the meetings. The Group Leader nominates his or her members for awards and appoints group officers to whom he/she will delegate aspects of the work associated with running a Herred.
2. The Group Officers
Each Herred will have a number of appointed officers who are responsible for various duties. Although the mechanism by which they are appointed and dismissed may be decided by each individual group, and should be laid out within the group rules, the responsibility for ensuring that each officer fulfils his/her duties lies with the Group Leader. One person, including the Group Leader, may hold more than one of these posts. Group officers may be nominated to receive the award of Silver Thegn, by their Group Leader, with the consequent promotion to the rank of Thegn, once they have fulfilled the necessary criteria.
a. Combat Training Officer
Any group which has 4 or more combatants must have a Group Combat Training Officer who will be responsible for the training and standard of combat within the Herred. This officer must attempt to pass the RTT test within 12 months of taking office and must continue to take the test, at least once every 12 months, until he/she succeeds in passing or is removed from office.
b. Authenticity/Village Officer
Every group must have a Group Authenticity/Village Officer who will be responsible for the authenticity and standard of dress and other equipment within the Herred. The Group Authenticity/Village Officer must liaise closely with the Society Authenticity/Village Officer and is responsible for ensuring that new information is passed on to members of the group and acted on as quickly as possible. Additionally the Group Authenticity/Village Officer will be responsible for the teaching and standard of non-combatant activities within the Herred. This officer must attempt to pass the authenticity/village test within 12 months of taking office and must continue to take the test, at least once every 12 months, until he/she succeeds in passing or is removed from office.
Dependent on the size and range of interests of a Herred, the Group Leader may choose to appoint other officers to fulfill posts as necessary. The above positions are, however, obligatory, depending on the nature of the Herred, and if they are not adequately filled, the President may deem it necessary to reduce the Herred to a Lethang.
C. Responsibilities of a Herred
1. A Herred should organize regular sessions to cover the training needs of its members and should ensure that these are run according to Society guidelines. Each Herred must ensure that all combatants wear minimum safety/training equipment at every training session. This equipment need not conform to any authenticity standards and should not be used for any purpose other than training.
2. A Herred should ensure that its members maintain an acceptable standard of kit and equipment and assist new members in achieving these standards.
3. A Herred must maintain a First Aid Kit to at least the minimum standard laid down in this document and ensure that this kit is present at every training session and show attended by the group.
4. A Herred should make every effort to attend major musters in strength and ensure that its part in the show is fully understood and communicated to its members. A Herred should never commit itself to organizing or attending a minor show without first ascertaining that the date does not clash with a major event.
IV. Provincial membership
Provincial members are the responsibility of the Provincial Members coordinator and must, at times, accept his/her decisions made on their behalf. Any grievances should be addressed primarily to the Provincial Members Coordinator or, in the event of the matter being unresolved, to the President.
11. ORGANIZATION OF SHOWS
Shows are classified as either minor or major musters, a designation made by the President and decided upon by a number of factors, e.g. importance to VNA, commitment made by VNA, historical importance.
I. General points
A. Before committing to any event, ask for a written statement outlining the organizer’s requirements and any payments and use of facilities, which they are offering in return.
B. Contact the President with these details and obtain permission for this to be a Society show, before entering into any commitments. Failure to do so will result in the show not being supported by the Society and the event not being covered by the society insurance policy. If the President deems this to be a major muster, he/she has the right to appoint an experienced show coordinator who will then take over negotiations with the show organizers.
C. Check that the show organizers and VNA insurance policy is suitable to cover all aspects of the planned event. Whenever possible make use of the shows insurance rather then that taken out by the Society.
D. Confirm the show details, in writing, and keep a copy of this for future reference. Obtain a written contract, recognized by both parties corroborating the agreement.
E. Ensure that camping and adequate toilet arrangements have been made and that the safety standards in the arena fulfill VNA demands. For any show involving combat, a double roped arena should be requested. If in any doubt, contact the President for assistance.
F. The event coordinator should list the event on the VNA web page including show details, including date, location, times and racial groups required at the earliest possible date. Include map if necessary. If necessary contact the VNA web minister or the VNA secretary for assistance.
G. The designated show co-coordinator is the only person who should liaise with the show organizers on behalf of VNA. Members with individual problems or queries should contact the show co-coordinator for assistance with their resolution.
II. Minor shows
A. The Group Leader of the organizing Herred/Lethang will be responsible for the successful running of this event.
B. Any payment received for the event belongs to the Herred/Lethang organizing the event and they are free to decide how any surplus money should be distributed. An account of the income and expenditure associated with the event should be kept and be made available to the President, on request, and incorporated into the group’s annual and quarterly accounts. 25% of any payment received should be set aside and forwarded to the President for taxes and the overall running of VNA.
C. Ensure that the location of the nearest emergency room or immediate care facility is known (this is not necessarily the same as nearest hospital) and that a vehicle is kept in a suitable position, such that it may easily exit the show ground, if necessary. Ensure that qualified first aid officers are made known to everyone before the start of each day’s proceedings.
III. Major shows
A. The organization of the event will be the responsibility of the President or a suitable Society Officer. The President should be involved in the earliest stages of negotiations and it is his/her responsibility to convey the necessary details to the appropriate officers.
B. Any payment received for the event belongs to the Society. An account of the income and expenditure associated with the event should be kept by the President and incorporated into the society’s quarterly and annual accounts. Whenever possible a potion of any proceeds should be given to the group that found the show.
In Viking times, the Thing was a gathering of free men of age and quality to bear arms, who met to put the law into effect, pronounce judgments and discuss matters of interest within the community. This concept was adopted by VNA to provide forums where decisions could be made and ratified which are important to the VNA as a whole.
I. The Electronic Thing
Since VNA is spread out over such a large area having a single event where everyone can attend and communicate face to face is impractical. In the spirit of the Thing, VNA will maintain a web site and electronic communications platform to help disseminate information and help keep the general populace informed.
A. Everyone is welcome to express his or her opinion or ideas on the Electronic Thing as long as it is in a polite and respectful manner.
B. All members of the Electronic Thing are welcome to vote in any polls and decision-making polls. Results from the polls will be posted to the list. However final say on all decisions rests with the Drengr.
C. Questions on VNA policy should be directed to the President or the appropriate Society Officer. If any other member of the society is more suited to answer the question then they may be directed to handle the issue.
D. Only the President or a Society Officer appointed by him/her may call for a policy-changing vote.
II. The Althing
A gathering may be held once a year at the Presidents discretion, normally in September or October. Like the Electronic Thing the Althing is an opportunity to conduct the business of VNA in a face-to-face format.
A. Attending members should be given as much notice as possible of the dates of the Althing, to ensure the maximum attendance.
B. All Drengr, Group Leaders and Society Officers have the right to attend the Althing. Individual members may be requested to attend all or part of the meeting, by the President, if their presence is deemed necessary.
C. The Althing may be opened to entire populace at the Presidents discretion.
D. Only Drengr and above have the right to vote at the Althing.
13. FINANCIAL REGULATIONS
A. Funding and Reporting
1. Vikings North America has two main sources of income – payments for shows and membership fees. It is operated as a not for profit organization in the state of Indiana but is not a federally recognized 501(c)3 charity and as such any donations are not tax deductible. All income is ploughed back into the business in order to fund Society projects. Herreds within VNA may maintain separate accounts and funds, with the permission of the President. Lethangs are probationary chapters and therefore not allowed to have separate accounts. To prevent the possibility of fraud a mechanism must be in place to ensure that all accounts are scrutinized on an annual basis. Additionally, each Herred group is also a branch of the business and as such, is legally obligated to submit their accounts to the President for inclusion in the annual tax returns.
2. The Vikings North America financial year will end on the 31st December of each year.
3. The President will prepare an Income and Expenditure account and Balance Sheet for the previous 12 months for the Society funds to be presented to the Group Leaders for inspection. The accounts need not be published but must be available to any full member of VNA who has a legitimate reason for wishing to inspect them. The account books will be taken to every Althing meeting and will be available for inspection.
4. All Herreds within VNA must submit an income and expenditure account and Statement of Affairs for the preceding year to the President on an annual basis. This must be signed as a true record by the branch group leader and one other group officer and must be made available to all members of that group who wish to see it. Herred accounts must be submitted to the President before the end of January of the next financial year, for inclusion into the accounts submitted to the government. If the group maintains more than one account, or has opened one for a brief period in the previous 12 months for any reason, these accounts must also be treated as above.
B. Reclaiming of expenses
1. All expense claims must be accompanied by all the appropriate receipts and documentation.
2. Any member found to have made a fraudulent or exaggerated claim will be subject to disciplinary proceedings, which could include removal from the Society and/or reporting to law enforcement.
C. Funding of Shows
1. Major shows – these will be run by the Society and the final decision as to the amount of monies received and paid out as expenses will be the decision of the President.
2. Minor shows – these are run entirely by the host group who may deal with the money as they wish after the 25% taxes and corporation fees are forwarded to VNA home office.
II. OPENING BANK ACCOUNTS
This section covers opening bank accounts in banks that follow U.S. rules regarding banking. Local law supersedes any of the guidelines listed below.
A. Bank Account Set-Up
1. Herreds of VNA, with the approval of the President, may set up bank accounts.
2. The Herred account must be titled as “Vikings North America, Inc. — <your branch’s name>”.
3. Herreds must use the VNA Tax ID number on any account opened in the banks governed under U.S. banking regulations.
4. Accounts should be set up as two signature accounts, meaning that it takes two separate signatures to write a valid check.
Signatories are those people who are authorized to sign for deposits or withdrawals on any bank account. As long as the signature(s) on the check or bank slip match those on the signature card held by the bank, the transaction is approved.
1. The President must be listed as a signatory on all accounts.
2. All signatories on Herred accounts must be paid members of VNA for as long as they are listed as signatories.
3. At least two officers of the same branch must be listed as signatories in addition to the President. Additional local signatures are allowed; however, there should only be one checkbook to keep check writing under control.
4. Signatories must live at separate addresses.
C. Signature Cards
Fill out the signature card (or have the bank officer do this) with the bank account name
or title, the account number, and signatory names. Have all the other local signatories sign the card by their typed names. Mail the card to the President who will sign and return the card to the local branch treasurer.
D. Making Deposits
Only signatories should make deposits. Keep a record of every check deposited, including the check number, the name on the check, the amount, and the check’s purpose. If your bank does not charge for deposits (or have a limit on free deposits), make separate deposits for separate purposes.
E. Making Withdrawals
Only signatories may make withdrawals, in writing, using a check made out to a person or an organization. Cash withdrawals are not allowed. If you need cash for a change box, write a check out to someone as an advance that they can convert into cash. Many thefts have involved checks made out to Cash where it was impossible to determine for what the funds were used.
Branch treasurers will forward copies of bank statements and a record of transactions quarterly.
January, February and March: due by the end of April
April, May and June: due by the end of July
July, August and September: due by the end of October
October, November and December: due by the end of January
Also called Revenue, this is the money that we gain during a period of time.
Membership fees will be set before October 1st of each year.
B. paying shows
1. Lethangs and Herreds who have not set up a separate VNA account.
Have the client make out a check to “Vikings North America.” The treasurer should send the check to VNA corporate headquarters and the corporate headquarters will deposit the funds. The money minus the 25% corporate fees will then be returned to the branch to be used as the branch sees fit.
2. Herreds who have set up VNA accounts.
Have the client make out a check to your branch. The branch treasurer records this as income and forwards the 25% up to corporation.
Reimbursements can be made only with receipts! If receipts are not available for some reason, the President may decide to accept a credit card statement or a written statement. In most cases, expenditures made on behalf of Vikings North America as a society will be reimbursed from the Society’s funds. Expenditures made on behalf of local groups will be reimbursed from that group’s funds.
V. DIRECT PURCHASES
Using a check at a store for an approved expenditure is allowable and quite common. The receipt is simply collected at the time of purchase. When purchasing from a mail order company, the check must be made out directly to the vendor. The packing slip will be a sufficient receipt if no other receipt is available.
14. HEALTH AND SAFETY RULES
I. Camping Area
A. The VNA event coordinator is responsible for the marking out of the campsite, the allocation of camping areas and the setup of all campsite facilities.
B. Camping and trading units are to be setup in such a manner as to facilitate access, movement about the area, and removal in the case of emergency and should be an adequate distance apart, so as to minimize the spread of fire. The recommended distance between Tents and other camping units should be not less than 6 feet apart (not including guy lines). Anyone not adhering to the above, when adequate camping space is available, will be asked to relocate his or her camping unit. Refusal may lead to disciplinary action being taken.
C. If an area has been designated for quiet sleeping, respect this and confine the noise to other areas of the campsite. When designating the quiet area, take into consideration the following factors: – location of main entrance and minor access points to the site; main roads running past the site; the location of the main camp fire for the muster; areas where people are likely to carry out training.
D. Only use areas well away from camping units, vehicles and property for training sessions. When taking part in any training be aware of children, animals and members of the public at all times.
E. Due regard shall be had for the land owner’s property; buildings, trees, fences, hedges, crops, turf and stock shall not be interfered with. Any damage to the landowner’s property is to be reported to the event coordinator immediately.
F. Camp fires may only be lit when prior permission has been obtained from the landowner.
G. Noise from radios, tape players, televisions and other sources is to be kept to a minimum and only during non-show hours.
H. No alcohol or alcohol-fortified beverages shall be sold on the campsite except from any properly licensed beer tent/trader. Licensees must be shown to the event coordinator and approved by the site owner.
A. Vehicle movements are to be kept to a minimum and, where possible, vehicles must be parked separately from camping units.
B. Access routes are to be maintained on the campsite at all times, and no vehicles whatsoever (save for Emergency Vehicles) are to be parked on them at any time during show hours.
A. Individual members are responsible for ensuring that their own camping unit and the surrounding area is kept safe, clean and tidy. Rubbish is to be neatly bagged and either taken home or deposited in the designated sites for subsequent removal.
B. Waste water is to be properly disposed of.
C. Water points are to be used solely for the collection of water. They are not to be used for the washing of individuals, their clothing, footwear, animals, utensils or vehicles.
D. Animals, if allowed by the site owner, are to be kept under close control and must not be allowed to roam loose around the camping area. The maximum recommended length of lead for tethered animals is 10 feet.
E. Animals, if allowed by the site owner, are to be exercised well away from the camping area and owners are required to clear up all droppings.
F. Horses, if allowed by the site owner, are to be led when within or passing through the camping area.
A. Camp fires are to be set up well away from any camping units.
B. No fire whatsoever is to be left unattended, whilst still burning. If the fire is going to be left it must be correctly extinguished.
C. Barbeques and similar pan based cooking fires are to be sited at least 6 feet from any tents or sails.
D. If required, all turf is to be removed beforehand and replaced afterward.
E. Every precaution is to be taken with regard to the risk of fire. It is strongly recommended that a suitable and properly maintained fire extinguisher of approved manufacture be kept in every camping unit.
V. First Aid
A. Every Herred/Lethang should appoint a First Aider, who should hold a recognized First Aid qualification from an approved testing body.
B. Each Herred/Lethang must maintain a basic athletic First Aid Kit.
C. The maintenance of the First Aid Kit is the responsibility of the Herred/Lethang. In the absence of a qualified First Aider it becomes the responsibility of the Group Leader of that Herred /Lethang.
No kit should be permitted to fall below the standard laid down in First Aid Kit
D. The First Aid Kit should be taken to all training sessions and events that the Herred/Lethang attends and be produced for inspection or use at the request of the President or any Society Officer.
E. No First Aid Kit should contain pills/tablets or medicines whatsoever, nor should the First
Aiders prescribe drugs under any circumstances.
F. No First Aid Kit should contain any item, which the First Aider is not trained to use.
G. An Injury and Treatment Record Book should be maintained by every Herred/Lethang, this book is to be stored with the First Aid Kit and kept up to date at all times with a record of:
1) Injured person’s name
2) Nature of injury
3) Cause of injury
4) Treatment given or action recommended
5) Treating persons name
6) Time and date
7) Any other information felt relevant at the time of the incident
This book should also contain any unusual medical conditions/information about group members that may prove useful to any other medical bodies likely to administer treatment. (e.g. rare blood types, asthma, allergies and so forth).
H. The First aider is responsible for informing the President if one individual is regularly inflicting wounds or is constantly receiving wounds.
I. The Society recommends that all its members have regular Anti-tetanus and
First Aid Kit
Injury and Treatment Record Book
Triangular Bandage (x2)
Medium Dressing (x2)
Small Dressing (x2)
Skin Closures (e.g. steri-strips)
Antiseptic Wipes/Tissues (alcohol free)
Disposable Latex Gloves
VI. Fires and Emergency Signal
A. The recognized warning signal for Fire or other Emergency on the campsite is:
Three short blasts on an air horn
B. The recognized All Clear signal is a continuous blast on an air horn.
C. The Misuse, Theft or Non Emergency Removal of fire horns/fire equipment or any other emergency equipment will be treated as a serious disciplinary offense and action will be taken against the offender(s).
VII. Emergency procedures On Discovering a Fire
A. Raise the alarm in the immediate locality by shouting ‘FIRE, FIRE, FIRE’.
B. Evacuate the area around the fire.
C. If safe to do so, tackle the fire with the means to hand.
D. If necessary, call out the Fire department and ensure that the recognized signal is given from the nearest fire point.
VIII. If The Fire Has Been Extinguished
A. Let people in the locality know that the area is safe by shouting ‘ALL CLEAR’ or giving the recognized all clear signal if required.
B. Re-fill any water or sand buckets that have been used.
C. Report the incident to the event coordinator and the President.
IX. If The Fire Is Serious and Likely To Spread
Ensure that the recognized signal is sounded all around the campsite.
A. Call the Fire Brigade.
B. Strike any tents and move any vehicles necessary to create a firebreak, but do not block any camp access roads.
C. All members are to evacuate the camping area immediately to a safe muster point.
D. Ensure that the event coordinator is made aware of the situation immediately.
X. Evacuation Procedures
If the general evacuation of the camping area is ordered, all members of the Society will observe the following procedure. Failure to do so will lead to disciplinary action being taken according to the Health and Safety Act.
A. Members should assemble by Herred/Lethang inside the main display arena unless notified of an alternate assembly point, taking care to observe the following, if it can be done without any risk to themselves or others.
1) Turn off or render safe any stove or fire in your area.
2) Secure or remove any valuables or weapons.
3) Remove any gas cylinders to the assembly point.
4) Take any First Aid Kits along to the assembly point.
B. On reaching the assembly point, leaders of Herreds/Lethangs are to take a register and endeavor to account for all their group members known to be at the event.
C. All Provincial members are to assemble together and take a register and to endeavor to account for all provincial members at the event.
D. All members are to remain at their assembly point until the all-clear signal is sounded.
E. All non-essential vehicle movement is to cease.
15. GENERAL RULES
I. At all Times
A. Whenever appearing in costume in public, the member must remember that they are representing VNA and act accordingly. Never do anything, which may damage the reputation of VNA.
B. Weapons should not be carried in public, unless being specifically used in a display, or transported to or from a Society event. Make every effort to keep weapons secure and hidden from view. Sharp or blunted weapons should not be worn on social occasions in public.
C. Never use a weapon against a member of the public or against a member of the Society who has not been trained to receive attacks or who is not expecting an attack.
D. Never use a weapon in an area where a member of the public, or their property, may be damaged.
E. Any member of the Society caught using non-prescription drugs at a Society event or when representing VNA will be automatically expelled from VNA.
F. Any member of the Society, who has been prescribed drugs and advised against driving, must not take part as a combatant at a Society event unless they can produce a doctor’s certificate of fitness. If they intend to take part in a non-combatant role, the VNA event coordinator or responsible First Aid Officer should be informed of the condition, in case of accidents.
G. No one should take part in a show when under the influence of alcohol. The guidelines on alcohol intake permitted to car drivers should be followed and, in the case of any dispute, the decision of the President, or senior officer present at an event, is final.
II. When Camping
A. Keep campsites tidy at all times. Treat the area with respect. All trash must be disposed of in appropriate containers when a campsite is being cleared. Try to leave the site in a better condition than you found it.
B. Do not light fires without the VNA event coordinator’s/land owner’s permission. When fires are allowed, dig fire pits when appropriate, and ensure the fires are kept well away from tents and under control at all times. Only use dead wood, which has not been designated for any other purpose, as fuel. Do not leave fires unattended and tidy the fire pit the following morning and fill in when finished with.
C. Dogs, and other pets, are the owner’s responsibility at all times and only allowed with prior approval from the VNA event coordinator. Do not bring animals to shows unless you can guarantee having the spare time to care for them. Dogs must be on a lead, or suitably confined, at all times, unless there is an area suitable for off the lead, supervised exercise, away from the campsite.
The Society is not responsible for any damage caused by an animal belonging to a Society member.
D. If an area has been designated for quiet sleeping, respect this and confine the noise to other areas of the campsite. If you require an early night, please camp in these areas and do not expect people using other parts of the site to be quiet on your behalf.
E. Only use areas well away from tents, cars and other pieces of peoples’ property for weapons training sessions. At all times be aware of the presence of children and members of the public.
III. On the Show ground
A. The rules laid down by the show organizers must be obeyed at all times, even if these are more restrictive than those usually followed by VNA.
B. There should be no mixing of Dark Age and 20th century costume when on the show ground. This may be relaxed on the campsite, away from public view.
C. Fighting of any description should only take part in designated areas and at designated times. Any impromptu training should not take place in the campsite, unless the VNA event coordinator has given permission. Always try to use an area of the show grounds where members of the public will not be involved.
D. Any questions asked by members of the public must be answered politely and as accurately as possible.
E. Traders may only set up stalls on the show ground if permission has been granted or a pitch has been paid for.
IV. During a display
A. The safety of the public is paramount. Never engage in any activity that may result in a member of the public being injured, even if this interferes with a previously planned event or script.
B. Safety ropes are there for a reason. Keep all aspects of the display inside the designated area and do not allow members of the public to cross into the designated area. All warriors involved in a melee must be aware of the position of the crowd and stop combat before it endangers the public, particularly if the area has only a single rope.
C. Arrive at muster points on or before the stated times and with all necessary kit, ready to take part in a display at the required time.
D. No swearing or offensive language or gestures are allowed at any time.
E. Combatants should be aware of the presence of non-combatants and take care not to injure them during a melee. Non-combatants should be aware of the fighting at all times and take care to position themselves where they should not be inadvertently injured. If children are on the field they must be under the close supervision of a responsible adult and never be positioned where their presence may be accidentally hidden from the combatants.
F. No member should attempt to use a weapon that they have not been fully trained in. No Non-combatant or Junior member should pick up and attempt to use a weapon during a show, unless as part of a carefully scripted routine.
16. VILLAGE RULES
I. General Points
The activities overseen by the Society AO/Village Officer are kit, encampment/village displays; craft exhibitions, the teaching and testing of all members interested in acquiring craft skills (however diverse these may be). It is recognized that this involves a wide range of abilities and knowledge, as well as entailing an immense amount of work; therefore the Society AO/Village Officer may wish to appoint a number of deputies (AO/RTTV) to take responsibility for one or more of these areas.
A. Deputies may only be appointed by the Society AO/Village Officer; with the approval of the President. The Society AO/Village Officer will still be held responsible for ensuring that standards are maintained in that area.
B. Villagers may take part in a combat display, subject to the constraints of the script, but must ensure that they do not place themselves in a position where they may be inadvertently injured or may restrict the combatants’ field of vision.
C. Villagers must never pick up and attempt to use any weapon or improvised weapon, e.g. pitchforks, either in an arena or encampment/village display, unless this is a carefully scripted event.
II. Encampment/Village Displays
A. Encampments and/or villages should only be erected with the show organizer’s permission, in the area indicated by them and subject to any constraints laid down by them. Fires should not be lit unless the organizers have given permission.
B. Displays are under the control of the Society AO/Village Officer, or their nominated deputy, and this person has the right to ban anyone from the display, whose dress and/or behavior do not conform to Society standards, or to insist that a prop or piece of equipment be removed.
C. The display should never be left completely unattended unless all removable props have been safely stored away. If the public is allowed free access to the display, it is recommended that the minimum of small props be on display at any time, for security reasons.
D. No sharp weapons or tools should ever be present in a display unless being used and closely supervised by an experienced craft worker.
E. Whenever practical, authentic names should be used, and all conversations should be kept in period when there is a member of the public in earshot.
F. No twentieth century equipment should be left in the display, unless well hidden.
G. Any piece of equipment left in the display is at the owner’s risk – members taking part in a display are there to entertain and educate the public, not to act as a security service for everyone else.
H. Any form of combat may only take place in the encampment/village display with the organizer’s consent and in an appropriate area where members of the public will not become involved. The combat will then be the responsibility of the Combat Officer and not the Village Officer.
17. HAND TO HAND COMBAT RULES
The combat rules are intended to ensure that all hand to hand and missile combat is as safe as possible whilst remaining enjoyable. The rules change and evolve, as does the society, and are the result of many years of experience.
I. General points
A. Weapons must never be edged or burred in such a way that a cutting edge is formed on the blade.
B. Combatants may only use weapons, which they are trained in the use of, and in which they have passed the relevant safety test, in displays. They may only train with weapons they are not qualified to use with the permission of the presiding training officer at training sessions.
C. Never use a weapon against a member of the public or against a member of the society who has not been trained to receive attacks or who is not expecting an attack.
D. Never use weapons in an area where a member of the public, or their property, may be damaged.
E. Arrows and other missiles aimed at a combatant should always be deflected down with a shield and never up.
F. Any member of VNA, who has been prescribed drugs and advised against driving, must not take part as a combatant at a society event. If they intend to take part as a non-combatant, the local VNA event coordinator first aid officer should be informed of the condition, in case of accidents.
G. No warrior should take part in a show or training session when under the influence of alcohol, or prescribed drugs for which they were advised against driving. Any warrior found at a society-sponsored event to be taking, or under the influence of, illegal drugs would be expelled from the society.
II. Target areas
Combatants are allowed to aim for any part of the body and legs from below the neck (i.e. from inside the collar bone) to above the knee, excluding the elbows, arms and groin (figure 1 &2). The chest is a legitimate target for both sexes. Blows to the shoulder are within the target area and should always be taken, to discourage opponents from aiming closer to the head.
III. off target areas
It is forbidden to land a blow on the knees, shins, calves, feet, elbows, and groin, neck or head (figure 3). If any blow to the head or neck, however well controlled or how good the opponent’s protection may be, results in the offending warrior being defeated. He/she should then allow him/herself to be killed by their opponent. Hits to other off target areas may be ignored, but, if taken in the view of the audience, should be acted out as a wound before continuing with the fight.
IV. Minimum protective equipment
All warriors taking part in any hand to hand combat at shows or training must wear the following equipment:
Stiff leather or chain backed gloves
Proper groin protection (i.e. an athletic cup or jill)
All female warriors who intend to take part in any hand to hand combat at shows or training should have the following additional equipment:
Fencing cups or padded gambeson or similar protection
Archers who will not be taking part in hand-to-hand combat need only wear a helmet. Archers, who may also participate in hand-to-hand combat, must comply with the above.
V. Weapons and equipment
All weapons and equipment must comply with the society authenticity regulations and technical specifications. A combat training officer or his/her designated representative will examine all weapons and equipment prior to a show. Any that are considered unsafe will not be allowed on the field until repaired.
The following weapons and equipment are permitted to be used by warriors in combat, once they have successfully completed the appropriate weapons assessment.
A. Protective equipment
Helmet – the minimum requirement is a steel or hardened leather skullcap that may be concealed within an authentic hat. It must be safe for the wearer and his/her opponent. Visible helmets must comply with authenticity regulations.
Gloves – the minimum requirement is stiff leather gloves that give the protection to the hands and fingers. They must be safe for the wearer and his/her opponent. Gloves must comply with the authenticity regulations.
All weapon blades must conform to the society technical specifications. The edges of all blades must be rounded. All blades must be kept free from burrs and weapons must be checked prior to the start of a show or training session. Both swords and scrameseaxs should be covered in a scabbard that complies with the authenticity regulations.
Shield – shields should be no bigger then three inches past the elbow when held against the arm by a center grip. This should give protection from the shoulder to the knee. Shields with a metal rim should be kept free from burrs and have rounded edges. Shields must comply with authenticity regulations and be in a safe condition for use on the field, as judged at the pre-show safety check.
Sword – sword points should comply with society technical specifications. Sword blades must not be made from mild steel and must not have hardened edges. Swords must comply with the authenticity regulations.
Scrameseaxs – scrameseaxs points must comply with society technical specifications. Scrameseaxs blades must not be made from mild steel and must not have hardened edges. Scrameseaxs must comply with the authenticity regulations.
Hand axe – the forward point of the axe head should comply with society technical specifications. Hand axe blades may be made from mild steel and may have hardened edges. It is recommended that axes be case hardened. Hand axes must comply with the authenticity regulations.
Long axe – the maximum length of a long axe should be such that the warrior may rest his chin on his hands while leaning on the axe. The forward point of the axe head should comply with society technical specifications. Long axe blades may be made from mild steel and may have hardened edges. It is recommended that axes be case hardened. Long axes must comply with the authenticity regulations.
Spear – spears should not be more then 7.5 feet long. The end should comply with society technical specifications and be flattened out of have a bulbous point. Spearheads may be made from mild steel and may have hardened edges. Spears must comply with the authenticity regulations.
Javelin – javelins should not be more then 4.5 feet long. The end should comply with society technical specifications and be flattened out or have a bulbous point. Javelin heads may be made from mild steel and may have hardened edges. Javelins must comply with the authenticity regulations.
All hits to an opponent should be made in such a way as to give the impression of force without inflicting real damage, which is to have lethal character. An attack that does not have lethal character will not score a valid hit. Minor accidents are inevitable, as with any martial art, however in order to minimize such occurrences certain types of attack are forbidden and some weapons have restrictions laid upon them.
A. Forbidden blows
Thrusts – thrusts to any part of the legs or off target areas are forbidden. Thrusts to the target areas are valid hits, but must be strictly controlled; the thrusting arm must not be locked.
Attacks to the head – hits to the head are normally forbidden. Attacks to the head should, however, be taught and, may be used in a scripted performance between two experienced warriors. Such attacks should be well telegraphed and may only contact the helmet provided the shot has been rehearsed and approved of by both warriors and the training officers.
B. Restrictions on weapons
Sword – swords are primarily cutting weapons, however, thrusts are allowed, although warriors must comply with the rules for thrusts. A cut or thrust to the target area will count as a valid hit and cause a kill. A cut or thrust to the off target area is not a valid hit. However if a warrior receives a hit to the off target area in front of the audience, then he/she should act as if they had been wounded.
Scrameseaxs – scrameseaxs are primarily cutting weapons, however thrusts are allowed, although warriors must comply with the rules for thrusts. A cut or thrust to the target area will count as a valid hit and cause a kill. A cut or thrust to the off target area is not a valid hit, however if a warrior receives a hit to the off target area in front of the audience, then he/she should act as if they had been wounded.
Hand axe – hand axes are cutting weapons and may not be used for thrusting. A cut to the target area will count as valid hit and cause a kill. A cut to the off target area is not a valid hit. However, if a warrior receives a hit to the off target area in front of the audience, then he/she should act as if he/she had been wounded.
Long axe – long axes are powerful cutting weapons and should be used as such. Tenth century long axes curved to a point, so thrusts are permitted. Warriors, must however, comply with the rules on thrusts. A cut or trust to the target area will count as a valid hit and cause a kill. A cut or trust to the off target area is not a valid hit. However if a warrior receives a hit to the off target area in front of the audience, then he/she should act as if he/she had been wounded. A warrior who has not passed the long axe test may not use a long axe.
Spear – spears are thrusting weapons and warriors must comply with the rules for thrusts. However a cut to the upper leg with the spear will count as a valid hit. Warriors who wish to use a spear in free style combat must have passed the spear test. A spear may be used by a warrior who has not passed the spear test, but only as part of a spear unit in a scripted display. The spear must then be discarded before entering free style combat. A thrust to the target area or a cut to the leg part of the target area will count as a valid hit and cause a kill. A thrust to the off target area or a cut to the target area other then the leg is not a valid hit. However, if a warrior receives a hit to the off target area in front to the audience then he/she should act as if he/she had been wounded.
Javelin – the javelin may be used in two ways. It may be used as a short spear, in which case the rules pertaining to spears apply. The javelin may also be thrown, but only in the scripted part of the show and only by some one who is scripted to do so. The warrior throwing the javelin is responsible for where the weapon lands after he/she throws it and must make eye-to-eye contact with his target before throwing. The javelin must not be thrown if the audience is close to the target or if there are bodies lying in the target area. An untrained person must never use a javelin in any capacity.
Shields – shields may be used to strike an opponent, but will not score a valid hit.
Helmets– helmets are defensive equipment. They should not be used to strike an opponent and a hit from one should be ignored. Use as an offensive weapon in scripted displays is permitted.
Chain mail – chain mail is defensive equipment. Any combatants wearing chain mail that complies with society authenticity requirements may ignore hits to the leg except for a cut with a long axe. Any hit to the combatant’s body or buttocks will be a valid hit and result in a kill.
Injuries will happen; these will normally only be cuts and bruises, but may occasionally be more serious.
Warriors are encouraged to report any injuries that they themselves have inflicted upon others.
The Code of Honor
In the case of minor injuries that require little or no medical treatment, warriors are expected to resolve any problems between themselves. Only in cases where both parties are not satisfied with the outcome should they consult with their Group Combat Training Officer or the Society Combat Training Officer.
In the case of an injury requiring medical attention, the warrior should report either to a group or Society Combat Training Officer. In these cases, the warrior’s skill with the weapon causing the injury will be re-assessed. If this is found to be sound, no further action will be taken.
If a warrior does not report him/herself as being responsible for causing an injury, which they can
reasonably be expected to know that they have caused, and is later identified, disciplinary action will then be taken.
Any warrior, not honest enough to report the injury that they have caused or noble enough to accept the blame gracefully, will be banned from all combat except when training under the supervision of a Combat Training Officer (RTT). This ban will last until they can be retested, on the weapon with which they originally caused the injury, at the next Major muster or Society Training weekend.
It must be stressed that the warrior is not being disciplined for causing an injury; any punitive actions taken by the Thegns of the Society are as a result of the warrior’s behavior after the injury was caused.
18. MISSLE COMBAT RULES
The aim of the Archery Rules is to ensure the safety both of the public and of those warriors who are under attack.
Of all the weapons that are used in the Society, missiles are potentially the most dangerous, particularly to the public. Therefore great care should be taken in their use. It must be remembered that once the arrow has left the bow, the archer no longer has any control over it; he/she must have a good clear target before loosing. Anyone using missile weapons must also be fully aware of what is behind and to the side of the target.
I. General Points
A. Arrows must never be pointed at members of the public.
B. Bows should be drawn only enough to cover the distance to the target.
C. No arrow should be aimed to hit higher than chest height on the shield of the average warrior.
D. Arrow scurriers, or anyone good enough to pick up arrows, should not be loosed at.
E. Archers are not to loose un-aimed arrows into a melee – only aimed arrows at clearly defined targets are permissible. High angle arrows (lobs) are only to be loosed in the scripted part of the battle. It is not permitted to loose arrows over the heads of warriors of either side during the unscripted part of the battle.
F. Archers must be aware of the presence and position of any non-combatants and children on the field.
Remember chest height on an adult is head height on a child.
G. Non-combatant archers must not carry any other weapon on the field, or attempt to block a killing shot from a combatant with the bow in case the combatant as indicating combatant training and a willingness to fight should misinterpret this.
H. Archers must train with live targets or use their bow at shows on a regular basis i.e. at least once per month. Those who have difficulties obtaining live targets should practice the control elements of the Basic and Advanced tests regularly.
I. Before a battle, archers must practice. If archery is to be scripted for a set piece, then the archers and their victims must rehearse. It is important that the shield wall knows the correct reactions to archery. This is for their own safety.
J. Bows should never be ‘cold drawn’.
K. Blunts must never be placed over sharp tips/points.
L. Arrows should be checked regularly and particularly before every show. Any with damaged shafts or blunts are not to be used.
M.. Archers must use their own bow and not borrow another’s bow on the field.
N. Never place blunt arrows and sharp arrows in the quiver at the same time.
O. No archer should take part in a show or training session when under the influence of alcohol, or prescribed drugs for which they have been advised against driving. Any archer at a Society sponsored event found to be taking, or under the influence of, illegal drugs, will be expelled from the Society.
P. Any Archer that requires wearing aids to vision to see their target must wear them when using a bow.
These aids to vision must be capable of being concealed for Authenticity purposes.
Q. Code of Honor
Archers are encouraged to report any injuries that they themselves have inflicted upon others. In the case of minor injuries that require little or no medical treatment, archers and warriors are expected to resolve any problems between themselves. Only in cases where both parties are not satisfied with the outcome, should they consult their Group Combat Training Officer, RTTs, or the Society Combat Training Officer.
In the case of an injury requiring medical attention, the warrior should report either to a Group or the Society Combat Training Officer. In these cases, the warrior’s skill with the weapon causing the injury will be re-assessed. If this is found to be sound, no further action will be taken. If an archer does not report him/herself as being responsible for causing an injury, which they can reasonably be expected to know that they have caused, and is later identified, then disciplinary action will be taken.
Any archer not honest enough to report the injury they have caused or to accept the blame gracefully, will be banned from all combat except when training under the supervision of a Combat Training Officer (RTT). This ban will last until they can be re-tested, on the weapon with which they originally caused the injury, at the next Major muster or Society Training weekend.
It must be stressed that the warrior is not being disciplined for causing an injury. Any punitive actions taken by the Thegns of the Society are as a result of the warrior’s behavior after the injury was caused.
II. Target Areas
Archers are allowed to aim for any part of the body and legs from below the neck (i.e. from inside the collar bone) to above the knee, excluding elbows, arms and groin. (Fig 3) Hits to the body and legs score a ‘Kill’. The chest is a legitimate target in both sexes. Arrows are not subject to the restrictions on thrusts, hits to the leg are valid hits and should be taken, so as to discourage the Archer from aiming higher. This will reduce the risk of the target warrior being injured in the face.
III. Off Target Areas
All other parts of the body are Off Target Areas and should not be aimed at. (Fig 3) A hit to the head has the same consequences as for warriors and the archer should stop loosing arrows and become a casualty (for script purposes it may be necessary for the Archer to rout off the field).
A. Bows – All bows must be 35lbs or less at a draw of 28 inches. They should be wooden, straight and confirm to Authenticity regulations. Bows should never be cold drawn. Archers must use their own bows on the field and not borrow another’s bow. They should not use a bow taken from a fallen Archer on the field.
B. Arrows – Arrows must have at least four flights with a total length of not less than 18 inches. The flights should be bound at each end and for their entire length. Flights should not be shaped, as this increases both their range and speed, and shafts should be regularly oiled to reduce the risk of shattering. Nocks should be carved from horn or into the wood. Only genuine rubber archery blunts are to be used (not plastic) and these must not be placed over sharp or broken tips/points. Check all arrows regularly. Arrows with damaged shafts or blunts are dangerous and not to be used. Arrows should be named, or marked, at each end for identification.
C. Quivers – Quivers must conform to Society authenticity regulations.
D. Helmets – All archers must wear a helmet that conforms to Society regulations. Archers who intend to take part in hand-to-hand combat must also wear arm guards and gloves.
V. Uses in a Show
If the arena is large enough, then both sides may use archery as part of a show, subject to the discretion of the organizers. If archery is to be used in a small arena, then one or more sides of the arena must be clear of the public. All arrows will then be loosed onto that boundary, even if it means that only one side has an archery unit. If non-combatants are to be involved in a show, then the archers must be aware of their position at all times. The non-combatants are responsible for ensuring that they are not standing in a position where the archers – for example, standing directly behind the opposing force, cannot see them.
Archers must practice before a public display of a battle. If archery is to be scripted, then the archers and the opposing force must rehearse, to ensure that the shield wall is correctly formed and the archers do not loose prematurely.